Thursday, 13 September 2012

Articles in English


How do you know when to use the indefinite articles?

The choice of article is actually based upon the phonetic (sound) quality of the first letter in a word, not on the orthographic (written) representation of the letter. If the first letter makes a vowel-type sound, you use "an"; if the first letter would make a consonant-type sound, you use "a." However, you may follow these basic rules when deciding to use "a" or "an," remembering that there are some exceptions to the rules.
"A" goes before words that begin with consonants.
A.      a cat
B.      a dog
C.     a purple onion
D.     a buffalo
E.      a big apple
"An" goes before words that begin with vowels:
A)      an apricot
B)      an egg
C)     an Indian
D)     an orbit
E)      an uprising


Use "an" before unsounded "h." Because the "h" hasn't any phonetic representation and has no audible sound, the sound that follows the article is a vowel; consequently, "an" is used.
·         an honorable peace
·         an honest error
When "u" makes the same sound as the "y" in "you," or "o" makes the same sound as "w" in "won," then a is used. The word-initial "y" sound ("unicorn") is actually a glide [j] phonetically, which has consonantal properties; consequently, it is treated as a consonant, requiring "a."
                     i.            a union
                   ii.            a united front
                  iii.            a unicorn
                 iv.            a used napkin
                   v.            a U.S. ship
                 vi.            a one-legged man

We have listed some examples in the following table. There you can see when we use the indefinite article and when we don't.

 “A” is used before a word beginning with a consonants sound
‘AN’ is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound
Boy/ B.A/ C.A / choice   course /  CD player doctor / bad day /ewe European/girl/eulogy heir/historian /home historical event  /habitual horse/human being  unicorn/hypothesis humorous event/knife natural motivator/hint man/minister/hill/hotel one eyed beggar eucalyptus tree

Scooter US got .plan
SAARC country
NATO member?
Union member
Unique manager
Unit /uniform
Universal rule
Useful thing
Yard/year/young man
Happy life/harvest
UNESCO Meeting

Accident / accountant
American /army /epic ASEAN member
Axe /egg/electric pole
Event /HCL product
Honest man/ employee
Hounourable man
Idea/idiot/ Indian
Interesting story
Ocean /excellent painter
FA cup / IOU

Impolite answer
M.P / M.L.A / M.A
ISI product
NCC officer
Oak tree /onion
Ordinary man /owl
Orphan /RMP doctor
R.T.C bus /S.B.I card
Extraordinary man
Umbrella/SSC student
Unkind remark /ulcer
Explosive factory
X-ray /LLB student

“The“ is the defineat articles because it is used when we speak of a definite  person or thing
                             The is used in the following contentext :[ before name of ]

Unique things
The sun ,      the moon,   the sky,   the earth,
Rivers /seas
The gangas,   the godaari ,  the nile,   the thames,
The pacific,  the atlantic,   the suez,   the panama canal,
Well-known books
The gita,   the bible,  the vadas,  the mahabaratham
The east ,  the west,  the north ,  the south , 
News papers
The hindu, the  eenadu, the India today, the times of India,
The leap year ,  the pongal ,  the ramzan,  the Christmas ,
Musical instruments
The piono,  the violin,  the sitar,  the flute,
Historical buildings
The tajmahal ,  the charminar,  the redfort,  the qutab minar,
Famous historical Events
The republic day ,  the industrial revolution the independence day
Plural names of the countries or places
The UK/ UNO the Netherlands ,the republic germany  ,
Ranges of mountains
The alps ,  the Himalayas , the vindhyas ,
Group of islands
The Maldives , the west indies ,  the laksha dweep , the andamans,
The microscope, the telescope ,  the cinema ,  the museum,
The first  ,the second  ,  the third , the last,
Ships/aero planes /trains
The titanic  ,the rajadhani express , the boeing 732
Superlative adjectives
The best , the biggest , the most.,  the wisest

Some more Usages:
Double comparatives: - the more you speak ,the less you understand
The higher you climb ,the colder you get
Adjectives used as noun :-{ the +adjectives. is equal to a plural noun }

the +rich =the rich people
the +poor=the poor people         eg:-the rich should help the poor
Persons or things mentioned for the second time:
e.g.  I met a boy,  the boy is very handsome
With the nouns that are made definite by a relative clause:
Eg;   this is the girl who danced in our auditorium
Singular nouns representing the whole class:
Eg:  the teacher should love man kind[all teachers]
The dog is a faithful animal [all dogs ]
 Proper noun used as common noun:
Eg ; kalidas is the Shakespeare of India                                      
Delhi is the London of India.


with names of countries (if singular)
is an important economic power.
He's just returned from Zimbabwe.
(But: I'm visiting the United States next week.)

with the names of languages
French is spoken in Tahiti.
English uses many words of Latin origin.
Indonesian is a relatively new language.

with the names of meals.
Lunch is at midday.
Dinner is in the evening.
Breakfast is the first meal of the day.

with people's names (if singular):
John's coming to the party.
George King is my uncle.
(But: we're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.)

with titles and names:
Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.
President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.
(But: the Queen of England, the Pope.)
  • After the 's possessive case:
    His brother's car.
    Peter's house.
  • with professions:
    Engineering is a useful career.
    He'll probably go into medicine.
  • with names of shops:
    I'll get the card at Smith's.
    Can you go to Boots for me?
  • with years:
    1948 was a wonderful year.
    Do you remember 1995?
  • With uncountable nouns:
    Rice is the main food in Asia.
    Milk is often added to tea in England.
    War is destructive.
  • with the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands:
    Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
    She lives near Lake Windermere.
    Have you visited Long Island?
  • with most names of towns, streets, stations and airports:
    Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
    Can you direct me to Bond Street?
    She lives in Florence.
    They're flying from Heathrow.
In some fixed expressions, for example:
·         by car
·         by train
·         by air
·         on foot
·         on holiday
·         on air (in broadcasting)
·         at school
·         at work
·         at University
·         in churh
prepared by: B. Balaji Reddy, Asso. Professor, SVPCET, PUTTUR.

1 comment:

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